Coffee Beans and its varieties: from Arabica to Gesha
Coffee beans are the Coffea plant’s seeds, primarily grown in tropical regions around the world. These beans are picked, processed, and roasted to create the coffee we know and love.
Different coffee beans are grown in other regions worldwide and have distinct flavor profiles. For example, Arabica beans are known for their delicate and nuanced flavors, while Robusta beans are known for their bold and robust taste. How the beans are grown, harvested, and processed also plays a significant role in determining the final product’s taste.
Coffee Bean Varieties List
- Blue Mountain
- Heirloom varieties
- Strictly Hard Bean (SHB)
- Strictly Soft Bean (SSB)
- Yellow Bourbon
- Red Bourbon
- Pink Bourbon
- Black Bourbon
*This is not an exhaustive list, and other varieties may be grown in different regions with different names.
Different varieties of coffee beans explained
In general, “variety” refers to a specific type or subtype within a larger category. In coffee beans, variety refers to the different subtypes of coffee plants cultivated for their seeds used to make coffee.
Arabica beans are considered of higher quality and are known for their delicate and nuanced flavors. They have higher acidity and a sweeter taste with fruit, chocolate, and sugar notes. Arabica beans are grown at higher elevations, making them more susceptible to disease and climate change. They represent about 60-70% of global coffee production.
Robusta beans are known for their bold and robust taste. They have lower acidity and a more bitter taste with notes of nuts and chocolate. Robusta beans are more resistant to disease and are grown at lower elevations. They represent about 30-40% of global coffee production and are higher in caffeine content than Arabica beans.
Liberica beans are grown primarily in West Africa and have a unique flavor profile. They have a woody and smoky taste with notes of fruit and nuts. They are less common and make up a small percentage of global coffee production.
Excelsa beans are grown primarily in Southeast Asia and have a fruity and floral taste. They are mainly used as a blending component in coffee production. They are less common and make up a small percentage of global coffee production.
Typica is a traditional Arabica variety considered one of the oldest known. It is known for its complex and delicate flavor profile, high acidity, and notes of fruit and chocolate. It is grown mainly in Latin America, Africa, and Asia.
Bourbon is a traditional Arabica variety; it’s known for its balanced and sweet flavor profile, with notes of chocolate and caramel. It is grown primarily in Latin America, Africa, and Asia.
Caturra is a natural mutation of the Bourbon variety. It is known for its high yield and balanced flavor profile, with notes of citrus and chocolate. It is grown mainly in Latin America.
Gesha is a rare and highly sought-after variety known for its complex and unique flavor profile, with floral, bergamot, and tropical fruit notes. It is grown mainly in Ethiopia and Panama.
Where does coffee beans growing?
Coffee beans are grown in many countries worldwide, primarily in tropical and subtropical regions. The top coffee-producing countries include Brazil, Vietnam, Colombia, Indonesia, Ethiopia, Honduras, India, Uganda, Guatemala, and Mexico.
Brazil is the largest coffee producer in the world, followed by Vietnam and Colombia. These countries are known for producing large quantities of coffee beans, but they also have a reputation for producing lower-quality beans. On the other hand, countries like Ethiopia, Honduras, Guatemala, and Kenya are known for producing high-quality beans with unique flavor profiles.
In Africa, coffee is grown in countries such as Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, and Rwanda. In Asia, coffee is grown in countries such as Vietnam, Indonesia, India, and China. In Central and South America, coffee is grown in Brazil, Colombia, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Mexico. In the Caribbean, coffee is grown in Jamaica, Haiti, and Puerto Rico.
Coffee beans are also grown in countries such as Australia, New Guinea, and Hawaii, but these countries are small producers of coffee beans.
Coffee beans are grown in many countries worldwide, each with its unique flavor profile and growing conditions.
What did we learn today?
This article discussed the different varieties of coffee beans grown worldwide, including the two main types, Arabica and Robusta, and the various minor and region-specific varieties. The article highlighted the unique flavor profiles and growing conditions of each array and how these factors can impact the taste and quality of the final coffee product.
Understanding the different varieties of coffee beans and their unique characteristics can significantly enhance the coffee experience. By learning about the other flavor profiles and growing conditions of each array, coffee enthusiasts can make more informed decisions when buying and brewing coffee. This knowledge can help to appreciate the nuances in flavor and aroma and to discover new and exciting coffee varieties. Additionally, understanding the types can help to support coffee farmers and the sustainability of the coffee industry.